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Overtaking and crossing situation on the high seas

  • Description of scenario: Vessel A: Power-driven vessel underway
    Vessel B: Power-driven vessel underway
    Vessel C: Power-driven vessel underway
    Area: On the high seas
    Visibility: Good (Vessels are in sight of one another)
    Vessel A and vessel B are sailing in approximately parallel courses and vessel B is overtaking vessel A on her starboard side
    Vessel A has vessel C on her own starboard side (relative bearing STBD 044°)
    Vessel A and vessel C are crossing so as to involve risk of collision
    Vessel B has vessel C on her own starboard side (relative bearing STBD 036°)
    Vessel B and vessel C are crossing so as to involve risk of collision
  • Rule(s) to be applied: Rule 13 (Overtaking)
    Rule 15 (Crossing situation)
    Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel)
    Rule 17 (Action by stand-on vessel)
  • Applying the Rule(s) and comments: Overtaking situation (vessel A and vessel B):
    In accordance with Rule 13 (a) (Overtaking), notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B, sections I and II, any vessel overtaking (vessel B) any other vessel (vessel A) shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken (vessel A).
    In accordance with Rule 13 (d) (Overtaking situation), any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel (vessel B) a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules or relieve her (vessel B) of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel (vessel A) until she is finally past and clear.
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel B) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel A) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way (vessel B) the other (vessel A) shall keep her course and speed.

    Crossing situation (vessel A and vessel C):
    In accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), when two power-driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel (vessel A) which has the other (vessel C) on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way.
    In accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), vessel A shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of vessel C.
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel A) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel C) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way (vessel A) the other (vessel C) shall keep her course and speed.

    Crossing situation (vessel B and vessel C):
    In accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), when two power-driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel (vessel B) which has the other (vessel C) on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way.
    In accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), vessel B shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of vessel C.
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel B) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel C) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way (vessel B) the other (vessel C) shall keep her course and speed.

    Comments:
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), vessel C shall keep her course and speed for vessel A and vessel B.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), vessel A shall keep her course and speed for vessel B, but in accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), vessel A shall keep out of the way for vessel C.
  • Actions: In accordance with the ordinary practice of seamen, vessel A and vessel B may take the following actions to avoid collision or close-quarters situation.

    a) Vessel A may alter course to starboard to avoid collision with vessel C and pass astern on safe distance immediately after the same action was done by vessel B

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    b) Vessel A may reduce speed to enable safe passing of vessel C

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    c) Vessel A may make 360° turn to port to avoid collision with vessel C

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    d) Vessel B may alter course to starboard to avoid collision with vessel C and pass astern on safe distance

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    e) Vessel B may reduce speed to enable safe passing of vessel C

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    f) Vessel B may make 360° turn to starboard to avoid collision with vessel C

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    g) Vessel B may take early action by making 360° turn to port to avoid collision with vessel C (when vessel B is not able to alter her course to starboard or changing her speed would not result in passing vessel C at safe distance)

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