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Multi-ship encounter situation in a traffic separation scheme

  • Description of scenario: Vessel A: Power-driven vessel , proceeding in appropriate traffic lane
    Vessel B: Power-driven vessel , proceeding in appropriate traffic lane
    Vessel C: Sailing vessel , crossing traffic lanes
    Vessel D: Vessel engaged in fishing in inshore traffic zone
    Area: Traffic separation scheme
    Visibility: Good (Vessels in sight of one another)
    Vessel A and vessel B are sailing in approximately parallel courses and vessel B is overtaking vessel A on her port side
    Vessel A and vessel C are crossing so as to involve risk of collision
    Vessel A has vessel C on her own starboard side (relative bearing STBD 040°)
    Vessel A and vessel D are sailing in approximately parallel courses and Vessel A is overtaking vessel D on her port side
  • Rule(s) to be applied: Rule 8 (Action to avoid a collision)
    Rule 10 (Traffic separation schemes)
    Rule 13 (Overtaking)
    Rule 18 (Responsibilities between vessels)
  • Applying the Rule(s) and comments: Crossing situation in a traffic separation scheme (vessel A and vessel C)
    In accordance with Rule 10 (b)(i) (Traffic separation schemes), a vessel using a traffic separation scheme (vessel A) shall proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane.
    In accordance with Rule 10 (c) (Traffic separation schemes), a vessel (vessel C) shall so far as practicable avoid crossing traffic lanes, but if obliged to do so shall cross on a heading as nearly as practicable at right angles to the general direction of traffic flow.
    In accordance with Rule 10 (j) (Traffic separation schemes), a vessel of less than 20 meters in length or a sailing vessel (vessel C) shall not impede the safe passage of a power-driven vessel (vessel A) following a traffic lane.
    In accordance with Rule 8 (f)(i) (Action to avoid a collision), a vessel (vessel C) which, by any of these Rules, is required not to impede the passage or safe passage of another vessel shall, when required by the circumstances of the case, take early action to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the other vessel (vessel A).
    In accordance with Rule 8 (f)(iii) (Action to avoid a collision), a vessel the passage of which is not to be impeded (vessel A) remains fully obliged to comply with the rules of this part when the two vessels are approaching one another so as to involve risk of collision.

    Comments:
    In accordance with Rule 8 (f)(iii) (Action to avoid a collision), a vessel the passage of which is not to be impeded (vessel A), will most probably proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane in accordance with Rule 10 (b)(i) (Traffic separation schemes), keeping her course and speed.
    If the vessel C doesn't take early and substantial action to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the vessel A, vessel A shall take appropriate actions to avoid collision in accordance with Rule 8 (f)(iii) (Action to avoid a collision).
    In accordance with Rule 10 (j) (Traffic separation schemes), sailing vessel C shall not impede the safe passage of a power-driven vessel A following a traffic lane.
    In accordance with Rule 8 (f)(I) (Action to avoid a collision) vessel C shall take early action to allow sufficient sea room for the safe passage of the vessel A.
  • Actions: In accordance with Rule 10 (j) (Traffic separation schemes) sailing vessel C may take the following actions to avoid collision or close-quarters situation with vessel A.
    If vessel C doesn't take early and substantial action in accordance with Rule 8 (f)(iii) (Action to avoid a collision), vessel A may also take some actions to avoid collision with vessel C

    a) Vessel C may reduce her speed to enable safe passing of vessel A

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    b) Vessel C may alter her course to starboard to enable safe passing of vessel A (altering her course to port is impossible due to vessel D engaged in fishing)

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    c) If vessel C doesn't take early and substantial action in accordance with Rule 8 (f)(iii) (Action to avoid a collision), vessel A may reduce her speed to avoid collision with vessel C

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    d) If vessel C doesn't take early and substantial action in accordance with Rule 8 (f)(iii) (Action to avoid a collision), vessel A may make 360° turn to port when the vessel B is passed clear ahead to avoid collision with vessel C (altering her course to starboard is impossible due to vessel D engaged in fishing)

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