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Overtaking and crossing situation with vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre on the high seas

  • Description of scenario: Vessel A: Power-driven vessel
    Vessel B: Vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre
    Vessel C: Power-driven vessel
    Vessel D: Power-driven vessel
    Area: On the high seas
    Visibility: Good (Vessels are in sight of one another)
    Vessel A and vessel B are crossing so as to involve risk of collision
    Vessel A has vessel B on her own portside (relative bearing PORT 045°)
    Vessel A and vessel C are crossing so as to involve risk of collision
    Vessel A has vessel C on her own portside (relative bearing PORT 025°)
    Vessel A and vessel D are crossing so as to involve risk of collision
    Vessel A has vessel D on her own portside (relative bearing PORT 045°)
    Vessel B is overtaking vessel C on her starboard side so as to involve risk of collision
    Vessel B has vessel C on her own portside (relative bearing PORT 030°)
    Vessel C and vessel D are sailing in approximately parallel courses and vessel D is overtaking vessel C on her port side
  • Rule(s) to be applied: Rule 13 (Overtaking)
    Rule 15 (Crossing situation)
    Rule 18 (Responsibilities between vessels)
    Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel)
    Rule 17 (Action by stand-on vessel)
  • Applying the Rule(s) and comments: Crossing situation (vessel A and vessel B):
    In accordance with Rule 18 (a)(ii) (Responsibilities between vessels), a power-driven vessel underway (vessel A) shall keep out of the way of a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre (vessel B).

    Crossing situation (vessel A and vessel C):
    In accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), when two power-driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel (vessel C) which has the other (vessel A) on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way.
    In accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), vessel C shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of vessel A.
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel C) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel A) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way the other shall keep her course and speed (vessel A).

    Crossing situation (vessel A and vessel D):
    In accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), when two power-driven vessels are crossing so as to involve risk of collision, the vessel (vessel D) which has the other (vessel A) on her own starboard side shall keep out of the way.
    In accordance with Rule 15 (Crossing situation), vessel D shall, if the circumstances of the case admit, avoid crossing ahead of vessel A.
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel D) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel A) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way the other shall keep her course and speed (vessel A).

    Overtaking situation (vessel B and vessel C):
    In accordance with Rule 18 (a)(i) (Responsibilities between vessels), except where Rule 9 (Narrow channels ), Rule 10 (Traffic separation schemes) and Rule 13 (Overtaking) otherwise require, a power-driven vessel underway (vessels C) shall keep out of the way of a vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuver (vessel B).
    As in this case, vessel restricted in her ability to manoeuvre (vessel B) overtakes power driven vessel (vessel C), Rule 13 (Overtaking) has to be applied. In accordance with Rule 13 (a) (Overtaking), notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B, sections I and II, any vessel overtaking (vessel B) any other vessel (vessel C) shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken.
    In accordance with Rule 13 (d) (Overtaking situation), any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel (Vessel B) a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules or relieve her (Vessel B) of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel (Vessel C) until she is finally past and clear.
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel B) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel C) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way the other (vessel C) shall keep her course and speed.

    Overtaking situation (vessel D and vessel C):
    In accordance with Rule 13 (a) (Overtaking situation), notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B, sections I and II, any vessel overtaking (vessel D) any other vessel (vessel C) shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken.
    In accordance with Rule 13 (d) (Overtaking situation), any subsequent alteration of the bearing between the two vessels shall not make the overtaking vessel (vessel D) a crossing vessel within the meaning of these Rules or relieve her (vessel D) of the duty of keeping clear of the overtaken vessel (vessel C) until she is finally past and clear.
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel D) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel C) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way the other (vessel C) shall keep her course and speed.

    Comments:
    In described scenario, there aren't any stand-on vessels which shall keep their course and speed.
    Vessel A is a stand–on vessel to vessels C and D (Rule 15) but shall keep out of the way of vessel B (Rule 18 (a)).
    Vessel B is a stand–on vessel to vessel A (Rule 18 (a)) but shall keep out of the way of vessel C (Rule 13 (a)).
    Vessel C is stand–on vessel for vessels B and D (Rule 17 (a)(i)) but shall keep out of the way of vessel A (Rule 15).
    Vessel D is a give-way vessel for vessel A (Rule 15) and also for vessel C (Rule 13 ).
  • Actions: In accordance with the ordinary practice of seamen, vessels A and B can take the following actions to avoid collision or close-quarters situation.

    a) Vessel A may make 360° turn to starboard to avoid collision with vessels B, C and D; vessel B may alter her course to starboard to parallel course with vessel C and D (when vessel A and B undertake these actions there is no more risk of collision with vessels C and D, which means that vessels C and D shall keep their course and speed)

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    b) Vessel A may reduce her speed and cross astern of vessels B, C and D; vessel B may reduce her speed to cross astern of vessel C but ahead of vessel A (when vessel A and B undertake these actions there is no more risk of collision with vessels C and D, which means that vessels C and D shall keep their course and speed)

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    c) Vessel A may take early and substantial action by altering her course to port and cross astern of vessels B, C and D; vessel B may alter her course to starboard to parallel course with vessel C and D (when vessels A and B undertake these actions there is no more risk of collision with vessels C and D, which means that vessels C and D shall keep their course and speed)

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