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Multi-ship encounter situation with vessel engaged in fishing, power-driven vessel and sailing vessel

  • Description of scenario: Vessel A: Vessel engaged in fishing
    Vessel B: Power-driven vessel
    Vessel C: Sailing vessel
    Area: On the high seas
    Visibility: Good (Vessels are in sight of one another)
    Vessel A has vessels B and vessel C on her own starboard side
    Vessel A is in a crossing situation with vessel B and vessel C so as to involve a risk of collision
    Vessel B and vessel C are sailing in approximately parallel courses and vessel B is overtaking vessel C on her port side
  • Rule(s) to be applied: Rule 7 (Risk of collision)
    Rule 13 (Overtaking)
    Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel)
    Rule 17 (Action by stand-on vessel)
    Rule 18 (Responsibilities between vessels)
  • Applying the Rule(s) and comments: Crossing situation (vessel A and vessel B):
    In accordance with Rule 7 (d)(i) (Risk of collision), a risk of collision shall be deemed to exist if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change.
    In accordance with Rule 18 (a)(iii) (Responsibilities between vessels) a power-driven vessel underway (vessel B) shall keep out of the way of a vessel engaged in fishing (vessel A).
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel B) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel A) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way (vessel B) the other (vessel A) shall keep her course and speed.

    Crossing situation (vessel A and vessel C):
    In accordance with Rule 7 (d) (i) (Risk of collision), a risk of collision shall be deemed to exist if the compass bearing of an approaching vessel does not appreciably change.
    In accordance with Rule 18 (b)(iii) (Responsibilities between vessels) a sailing vessel underway (vessel C) shall keep out of the way of a vessel engaged in fishing (vessel A).
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel C) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel A) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way (vessel C) the other (vessel A) shall keep her course and speed.

    Overtaking situation (vessel B and C):
    In accordance with Rule 13 (a) (Overtaking situation), notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B, sections I and II, any vessel overtaking (vessel B) any other vessel (vessel C) shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken (vessel C).
    In accordance with Rule 16 (Action by give-way vessel), every vessel (vessel B) which is directed to keep out of the way of another vessel (vessel C) shall, so far as possible, take early and substantial action to keep well clear.
    In accordance with Rule 17 (a)(i) (Action by stand-on vessel), where one of two vessels is to keep out of the way (vessel B) the other (vessel C) shall keep her course and speed.

    Comments:
    Vessel engaged in fishing (vessel A) is obliged to keep her course and speed for crossing vessel B in accordance with the Rule 18 (a)(iii) where a power-driven vessel underway (vessel B) shall keep out of the way of a vessel engaged in fishing (vessel A).
    Vessel A is also obliged to keep her course and speed for crossing vessel C in accordance with the Rule 18 (b)(iii) where a sailing vessel underway (vessel C) shall keep out of the way of a vessel engaged in fishing (vessel A).

    Power-driven vessel (vessel B) is obliged to keep out of the way for crossing vessel engaged in fishing (vessel A) in accordance with the Rule 18 (a)(iii) where a power-driven vessel underway (vessel B) shall keep out of the way of a vessel engaged in fishing (vessel A).
    When Rule 18 (Responsibilities between vessels) apply, Rule 18 obligation displace Rule 15 (Crossing situation). Nothing in Rule 18 directs the give-way vessel (vessel B) to take, or not take, any particular avoiding action. Thus, in contrast to Rule 15 for crossing situation, Rule 18 does not preclude the vessel directed to keep out of the way from crossing ahead of the other.

    Power-driven vessel (vessel B) is obliged to keep out of the way of the overtaken vessel (vessel C) in accordance with Rule 13 (a) (Overtaking situation), notwithstanding anything contained in the Rules of Part B, sections I and II, any vessel overtaking (vessel B) any other vessel (vessel C) shall keep out of the way of the vessel being overtaken (vessel C).

    Power-driven vessel (vessel B) is a vessel with different responsabilities than sailing vessel (vessel C) in accordance with Rule 18 (Responsibilities between vessels), but Rule 18 (Responsibilities between vessels) does not apply because Rule 13 (Overtaking situation) overrides Rule 18 (Responsibilities between vessels). For vessel B it is the most important to determine if the risk of collision with vessels A and C exist well in advance in order to avoid a position where a collision cannot be avoided by the action of the give-way vessel alone.

    Sailing vessel (vessel C) is obliged to keep out of the way for vessel engaged in fishing (vessel A) in accordance with Rule 18 (b)(iii) but is also obliged to keep her course and speed for overtaking power-driven vessel (vessel B) in accordance with Rule 13 .

    In accordance with Rule 8 (Action to avoid collision ) any action to avoid collision or close-quarters situation with one vessel shell not result in another close-quarters situation.
  • Actions: Vessel B and vessel C can take following actions to avoid collision or close-quarters situation.

    a) Vessel B may reduce her speed and allow vessel A to cross ahead.

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    b) Vessel B may turn to port and cross astern of vessel A.

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    c) Vessel B may reduce speed early and turn to starboard to avoid a close quarter situation with vessel A and cross astern of vessel C so as to overtake her on her starboard side.

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    d) Vessel B may make a 360° turn to port to avoid collision with vessel A.

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    e) Vessel C may reduce her speed and allow vessel A to cross ahead.

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    f) Vessel C may turn to starboard to avoid collision with vessel A.

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